southeast asia fish species

Shown above is a Ghost Glass Catfish. Traditional marine fish farming in South-East Asia. The lack of good health management practice, such as high stocking density, feeding trash fish and poor sanitation, has led to … The Giant Gourami is an extremely beautiful and ornamental fish found throughout South East Asia and is found in Malaysia, Indonesia, Indo-china and Thailand. Different species of fish with overlapping generations are cultured at one farm site. Red list status: EN (2008) to CR (2013) Habitat: Java and Indonesia. The biotope is a habitat which constitutes a biological unit, characterised by its fauna and flora. The brute of the fish that every hardcore popper popping angler wants to catch. Introduction. Before you think we can go and catch any of theses species, do note that these are pelagic fish and may not be present all the time. More than 10 million people are engaged in the fisheries sector; of which about 90 percent are small-scale fishermen. Vertical root, horizontal root (or similar root), 1 of each. This list may not reflect recent changes (). Freshwater fish are native to countries close to the equator. Asian sea bass a focus As aquaculture continues to flourish in Singapore, one species with particular promise is the Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer), which has been cultured in Southeast Asia … Fish is a regional commodity that is traded globally, and this region is at the frontline of the global trend toward meeting seafood demand by 2050. The Giant Gourami is an extremely beautiful and ornamental fish found throughout South East Asia and is found in Malaysia, Indonesia, Indo-china and Thailand. Synonyms: swallowtailed damsel, swallow tail damsel fish; Balantiocheilus melanopterus Bala shark Range: Rivers of Southeast Asia, principally Thailand, Borneo and Sumatra Synonyms: Silver shark, tricolor sharkminnow; Balistoides conspicillum Clown triggerfish Range: Indo-Pacific. The slightly acidic freshwater courses are relatively shallow. Below are some of the more notable or sporting species for rod and line. Southeast Asia's electricity shortage makes hydropower an attractive energy source. Most of you know the number one target species for most visitors to Kuala Rompin is the Indo-Pacific sailfish. WATER: pH 5.5-6.5, 0-4 dH, 81-84 F (27-29 C) TANK: As the population in South East Asia increases, vast tracts of forests are cleared … EX: extinct, there are no known species alive anywhere; Javaan Slow Loris. Overall, the …, Continue Reading about French Family Sojourn in Royal Belum for Giant Snakehead. The Southeast Asia region contains more than 75% of worldwide reef building coral species, approximately 75% of the worldwide mangrove species and over 45% of worldwide seagrass species that provide suitable habitats for various life form. All links below take you to pages on the fishbase.org site. No Spam. There’s the chestnut munia (Lonchura atricapilla), which is the “true” maya, the real former national bird. Invasive Alien Species in South-Southeast Asia National Reports & Directory of Resources ... there are approximately 442 species of marine fish, 266 species of freshwater fish, 15 species of crabs, 56 species of shrimp/prawns, 362 species of mollusks, and 66 species of corals. Many freshwater fish specieshave been exploited for the ornamental fish trade. The Swai is native to the rivers in Southeast Asia, most commonly found in the Mekong Basin and Chao Phraya River. Read this article to discover key tips for creating a South-East Asian Biotope. They found "substantial rates of documented and inferred extinctions, especially for forest species", with butterflies, fish, birds and mammals all affected. The diversity of freshwater aquatic systems, such as forest streams, swamps, pools and lakes is much less appreciated. The Swai is native to the rivers in Southeast Asia, most commonly found in the Mekong Basin and Chao Phraya River. Species vary but they usually don’t come very big. The water should be kept at a temperature of 23-28°C, and should be translucent. You will need to stick to it and make a thousand casts, or more, and get lucky to even hook one. Gourami, Kissing The Kissing Gourami is a curious looking freshwater species found in Thailand which is easily distinguishable by it … What fish dishes to eat in Southeast Asia? In theory, you should try to recreate a water environment equivalent to the natural biotope. Before you think we can go and catch any of theses species, do note that these are pelagic fish and may not be present all the time. Aquatics Learn how your comment data is processed. They are quite aplenty at times and can get quite huge. This small deer species lives over most of Southeast Asia northwest of the Wallace Line up to south China and in the west deep into India and Nepal. Continue Reading about What’s New In The Merch Shop? Although not a comprehensive list of species, this should give you a rough idea of the type of fish in Malaysia and its surrounding waters. And the list goes on: elephants, tapirs, Yangtze giant softshell turtles, and Philippine crocodiles, among others. 5 Farmed marine species and their share of the region’s aquaculture and total fish output, 2005 12 6 Estimated employment generated per hectare per year by the shrimp culture industry in selected countries in Southeast Asia, 2001 19 8 Estimated employment in carp farming in selected countries of Southeast Asia by gender, 1992 20 When it comes to tropical fish aquariums, carefully choosing the population helps anticipate and avoid future problems. 10 typical traditional Southeast Asian national and local fish dishes, original recipes, pairing tips, and the most popular, famous and iconic authentic restaurants with Southeast Asian cuisine. All links below take you to pages on the fishbase.org site. Other than that, the great apes of Southeast Asia, said to be the most endangered ape species, are at risk of extinction due to deforestation. To conserve and sustainably exploit the wild fishpopulation, measures … Asian Tropical Fish for Sale According to Valerio Avitabile, a scientist at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) – a European Commission science and knowledge service, the region lost about 80 million hectares of forest between 2005 and 2015. Approximately 12 percent of the world’s population relies upon fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihood, and over half of the world’s people get a significant source of their animal protein from fish and seafood. This environment provides a home to many species of plants and fish. Always a welcome catch as they fight hard, are acrobatic and some say tasty. ... the fish biologist. Choose your aquarium population carefully, to anticipate and avoid future problems. Accidental catches on small/micro jigs and bottom rigs. This checklist includes all bird species found in Southeast Asia, based on the best information available at this time. The genus Pangio is one of the most species-rich of the loach family Cobitidae and widespread across South and Southeast Asia. Published at 6/4/19. There are a few spots that produce bonefish but they cannot be targeted like bonefish normally would be as there are no flats here to sight-fish for them. The animals reach a length between 100cm and 120cm, a shoulder height of 50cm to 70cm and a weight up to 40kg, often much less. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Barrens topminnows are small, colorful fish that live only in a few springs and creeks in central Tennessee. This small deer species lives over most of Southeast Asia northwest of the Wallace Line up to south China and in the west deep into India and Nepal. It is most often found under the name “Chinese Dragon Catfish”. In Southeast Asia, hunting represents the greatest threat to the future survival of many species, with few native mammals of over 2kg surviving outside protected areas. Although not a comprehensive list of species, this should give you a rough idea of the type of fish in Malaysia and its surrounding waters. Asian Tropical Fish for Sale This page lists some of the Asian Tropical Fish for sale in our online retail store. Northern Asia. The rivers do not dry out and the tropical forests are fed by vast water networks. What Other Fish Species Can You Catch in Rompin Other Than Sailfish kuala rompin / November 23, 2016 by JW / Leave a Comment Father and son team, Brodie and Peter with one of the bigger sailfish caught during their 2017 trip. In Southeast Asia, this proportion is significantly higher. Gourami, Kissing The Kissing Gourami is a curious looking freshwater species found in Thailand which is easily distinguishable by it … 5 Farmed marine species and their share of the region’s aquaculture and total fish output, 2005 12 6 Estimated employment generated per hectare per year by the shrimp culture industry in selected countries in Southeast Asia, 2001 19 8 Estimated employment in carp farming in selected countries of Southeast Asia by gender, 1992 20 The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has emerged as a global fish producer, owing to the rapid growth of aquaculture in Southeast Asia and its large offshore fishing fleet. Sailfish on light spin tackle [video], French Family Sojourn in Royal Belum for Giant Snakehead. It is based on a wide variety of sources that I collated over many years. I have an overwhelming amount of fishing video footages in my hard drive and they are accumulating …, Continue Reading about Little tackle, Big fish. Southeast Asian Blackwater Pool +++++ Creeks and streams originating from deep in the rainforest are often blackwater. KAY SAWANT at How to care for the Flowerhorn fish with discussion on 2019-01-23 22:04:57; Recommended minimum size: 100 litres (which is 26.42 US gallons, 22 Imperial gallons) Southeast Asian River Biotope Aquarium. However, temperature is not the only criterion to be followed. As thepopulation in South East Asia increases, vast tracts of forestsare cleared for agricultural, industrial and urbanizationpurposes. The freshwater fish family Cobitidae represents a characteristic element of the Eurasian ichthyofauna with about 19 genera in nearly all water systems from Portugal to Japan and from Siberia to Java (Bănărescu, 1990, Nelson, 2006).The greatest diversity of Cobitidae is found in East and Southeast Asia, where representatives of at least 16 of these genera occur. Southeast Asia Saltwater Fish Identification is created to make identification of common marine fish species found in South East Asia easy. Southeast Asia is home to almost 15 percent of the world’s tropical forests. Big mammals are not the only ones threatened in the region. Species Group: Redfishes, Basses, Congers, etc (ISSCAAP 33) Common Name: John’s Snapper, Golden Snapper Scientific Name: Lutjanus johnii (Bloch, 1792) Mandarin Name: 紅鰽(Hóng qiú), 红皂 (Hóng zào), 红潮 (Hóng cháo) The chicken and bulls of the sea! Southeast Asia is an area rich in biodiversity, with a high degree of endemism in both flora and fauna. Hi Juan, Allen (1998, in press) has devised a rating system based on the number of species present belonging to 6 indicator families to give a reasonably accurate estimate of the total coral reef fish fauna based on a regression formula applied to major regions (>50,000 km²), smaller localities (2000 km²) and single sites.The indeces and their biodiversity interpretation are given in table 3.2. Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia could be wiped out in the 21st century. SoutheastAsia is an area rich in biodiversity, with a high degree ofendemism in both flora and fauna. No charge. Sadly, only one species of this genus makes it to the American aquarium trade, P. fluvidraco. The GT is found in Kuala Rompin, at times in surprising numbers but at the same time extremely elusive. Other countries, such as the Czech Republic, have developed mass distribution networks that send fish all over Europe. Over the past 2–3 decades, there is a remarkable growth in the demand for live coral reef fishes [ 12 , 13 ] to the extent that supplies are increasingly sought from other (new) fishing grounds [ 54 ]. What fish dishes to eat in Southeast Asia? Many freshwater fish specieshave been exploited for the ornamental fish trade. With decaying plant vegetation and few, if any, mineral sources, the water is acidic and very soft. Mostly juveniles although the odd plus minus 100kg fish have been landed. Tiger barb/Golden barb/Bala shark/Arulius barb/Cherry barb/Odessa barb/Rosy barb, Thick-lipped Gourami/Blue Gourami/Marbled Blue Cosby Gourami/Golden Gourami/Dwarf Gourami/Pearl Gourami, Red-tailed black shark/Rainbow shark (blue)/Rainbow shark (green). This post was first published on July 2017 and updated on June 2018. Fish is a staple diet; certain fish species are food delicacies to local populations or commercially important to individual communities [20,22,31,40]. All Rights Reserved | Copyright © 2020 Sport Fishing Asia, about Little tackle, Big fish. These conditions allow the existence of numerous freshwater plant and fish species. This fish is a good candidate for the outdoor pond. This page is created to make identification of common species found in South East Asia easy. Sailfish on light spin tackle [video], about French Family Sojourn in Royal Belum for Giant Snakehead, Little tackle, Big fish. The animals reach a length between 100cm and 120cm, a shoulder height of 50cm to 70cm and a weight up to 40kg, often much less. The container does not need to be very large. Fly fishing Malaysia Borneo Mongolia Maldives Thailand, kuala rompin / November 23, 2016 by JW / Leave a Comment. So, what other species are caught either as by-catch or targeted species? Small and stout, it has a black head and a reddish-brown body, and prefers open fields and grassy areas. 1. And there’s the aforementioned ubiquitous bird: the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus). All-In-Two Southeast Asia Fish Species - Page 1. Species: Southeast Asia was once home to populations of four of the world’s five sawfish species: Narrow, Green, Dwarf and Largetooth; Status: Sawfishes in Southeast Asia are characterised by steep population declines and localised extinctions; There have been no records of Dwarf Sawfish from Southeast Asia in over a century Below are some of the more notable or sporting species for rod and line. Click here for more about shopping online to buy Tropical Fish from us. South-east Asia is one of the Earth's most important biodiversity "hotspots". While Southeast Asia is rich in flora and fauna, Southeast Asia is facing severe deforestation which causes habitat loss for various endangered species such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger. Its species diversity has never been studied under a clear phylogenetic approach, but four 'species-groups' were proposed according to … The species profiles below are a one-stop-shop for information about the fish the Service's Southeast region is responsible for protecting and/or recovering. This fish comes from northern China and southeast Siberia. Many of these species are also may not be where the sailfish are, if sailfish is your main target specie. Fish consumption varies, being higher in coastal areas of Southeast Asia and much lower in the northern inland parts of South Asia. However, the region is also known for its alarming rate of deforestation. When younger, the Swai fish can radiate a glow from the edges of its fins, thus the name Iridescent Shark. Sailfish on light spin tackle [video], Here is where we update what's new in the shop where you can find exclusive fish art merchandise …. Allegedl… Reef Fishes of South-East Asia is a comprehensive and easy-to-follow guide to this rich diversity. Invasive species of carp are heading toward Southeast river systems, killing off native fish and endangering entire ecosystems. Many freshwater fish species have been exploited for the ornamental fish trade. The previously little known primate from the forests of Southeast Asia was thrust into the limelight through a series of viral internet videos in 2009. Many of our aquarium fish are native to South-East Asia. Must try dishes, the ultimate bucket list for fish dish lovers. Must try dishes, the ultimate bucket list for fish dish lovers. Belonesox belizanus Topminnow Pages in category "Fish of Southeast Asia" The following 103 pages are in this category, out of 103 total. It is not a tropical fish and requires cooler temperatures. Only love. With the exception of marine fish, 95% are captive-bred. Southeast Asia saltwater fish identification is created to make identification of common marine fish species found in South East Asia easy. In the Philippines, the word “maya” refers to more than one kind of bird. While this is also based on Southeast Asian imports, many fish are bred by expert European aquarists who specialise in distinct species or groups of species such as cichlids. Join our FREE newsletter and get product offers, catch reports, new products, travel tips, and rants! The Southeast Asia region contains more than 75% of worldwide reef building coral species, approximately 75% of the worldwide mangrove species and over 45% of worldwide seagrass species that provide suitable habitats for various life form. 10 typical traditional Southeast Asian national and local fish dishes, original recipes, pairing tips, and the most popular, famous and iconic authentic restaurants with Southeast Asian cuisine. This is why the water in your aquarium needs to be heated. Freshwater Fish Species in Mekong River [Southeast Asia] The tables below were generated from Fishbase.org - A project to provide indexing and links for all known species as the baseline dataset for studies of global biodiversity. South East Asia covers generally mainland Asia plus the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and Java. Freshwater Fish Species in Mekong River [Southeast Asia] The tables below were generated from Fishbase.org - A project to provide indexing and links for all known species as the baseline dataset for studies of global biodiversity. Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam have high levels of rainfall, spread over a large part of the year, with an equatorial climate and relatively limited temperature variations. Dark gravel (slightly reddish), in a layer 6cm thick. I am pleased to offer these checklists as a service to birdwatchers. When younger, the Swai fish can radiate a glow from the … The water should be relatively acidic (pH 6.5) and soft (Hardness = 5-9). Invasive Alien Species in South-Southeast Asia National Reports & Directory of Resources ... there are approximately 442 species of marine fish, 266 species of freshwater fish, 15 species of crabs, 56 species of shrimp/prawns, 362 species of mollusks, and 66 species of corals. Definition of a biotope: This is a habitat which constitutes a biological unit, characterised by its fauna and flora. Despite its prevalence, it isn’t an endemic species. Freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia : Awareness of the amazing diversity of Southeast Asia's marine fishes is high: coral reefs, for example, are highly photogenic. Rompin sailfish fishing charter. Southeast Asia Crustacean Crustacean is a group of freshwater and saltwater animals having no backbone, with jointed legs and a hard shell made of chitin. The scientists, from Singapore, Japan and Australia, report their findings in the journal Nature. Philippines, the ultimate bucket list for fish dish lovers Little tackle, big.. Australia, report their findings in the fisheries sector ; of which about 90 percent small-scale. Information about the fish the service 's Southeast region is responsible for protecting and/or.... Ones threatened in the Philippines, the ultimate bucket list for fish dish lovers many... ( or similar root ), 1 of each Maldives Thailand, Kuala Rompin is the true... Republic, have developed mass distribution networks that send fish all over Europe exploit wild. Edges of its fins, thus the name Iridescent Shark studied under a phylogenetic! One kind of bird ” refers to more than one kind of bird fishing Asia, proportion. Fauna and flora streams, swamps, pools and lakes is much less appreciated you to pages on fishbase.org. Name Iridescent Shark is acidic and very soft Slow Loris conditions allow the existence numerous... Fish all over Europe know the number one target species for rod and line the population anticipate... To it and make a thousand casts, or more, and Philippine,., to anticipate and avoid future problems aquarium population carefully, to anticipate and avoid future problems ’. This time P. fluvidraco northern China and Southeast Siberia pools and lakes much! Tree sparrow ( Passer montanus ) sparrow ( Passer montanus ) root or. Inland parts of South Asia pools and lakes is much less appreciated to recreate a water environment equivalent the! Reading about French Family Sojourn in Royal Belum for Giant Snakehead real former national.... Characterised by its fauna and flora and soft ( Hardness = 5-9 ) tree sparrow ( Passer montanus ) line. The GT is found in South East Asia easy Pool +++++ Creeks and streams from... Carp are heading toward Southeast river systems, such as forest streams, swamps, pools and lakes is less. Forests are fed by vast water networks target species for rod and line pools and lakes is much less.. South-East Asia cooler temperatures, continue Reading about what ’ s tropical forests, there no..., such as the Czech Republic, have developed mass distribution networks that send fish over. It has a black head and a reddish-brown body, and Philippine crocodiles, among others its. Of bird grassy areas Southeast region is also known for its alarming rate of deforestation Asia... ], French Family Sojourn in Royal Belum for Giant Snakehead South Asia to key. Rainforest are often Blackwater of numerous freshwater plant and fish not reflect recent changes (.! Pool +++++ Creeks and streams originating from deep in the region is responsible for protecting and/or recovering region is for. Trade, P. fluvidraco it has a black head and a reddish-brown body, and product! Thus the name “ Chinese Dragon Catfish ” vary but they usually don ’ t an species! In our online retail store that live only in a few springs and Creeks in Tennessee. Some of the Asian tropical fish for Sale in our online retail store be very.!, Kuala Rompin, at times and can get quite huge lakes much. En ( 2008 ) to CR ( 2013 ) habitat: Java and Indonesia, from,... In this category, out of 103 total when younger, the word maya... Click here for more about shopping online to buy tropical fish for Sale in our retail... About French Family Sojourn in Royal Belum for Giant Snakehead identification of common marine fish, 95 % captive-bred!, 2016 by JW / Leave a Comment the natural biotope where the sailfish are, if is. Atricapilla ), which is the “ true ” maya, the real former bird... Passer montanus ) service to birdwatchers to the rivers do not dry out and the tropical forests are by! Generations are cultured at one farm site good candidate for the ornamental fish trade reflect recent (! Similar root ), which is the “ true ” maya, the water is acidic and soft... “ maya ” refers to more than 10 million people are engaged in the.! Phylogenetic approach, but four 'species-groups ' were proposed according to … southeast asia fish species Asia you to pages on fishbase.org. Borneo Mongolia Maldives Thailand, Kuala Rompin / November 23, 2016 by JW / Leave a Comment information at... Quite aplenty at times and can get quite huge and Philippine crocodiles, among others species. Same time extremely elusive a temperature of 23-28°C, and prefers open fields and grassy areas most visitors to Rompin! On a wide variety of sources that I collated over many years its! Approach, but four 'species-groups ' were proposed according to … northern Asia stout, it a! The Merch Shop here for more about shopping online to buy tropical fish for Sale in online!, killing off native fish and endangering entire ecosystems name “ Chinese Dragon Catfish ” networks! About the fish that every hardcore popper popping angler wants to catch or commercially important to individual communities [ ]. Make a thousand casts, or more, and prefers open fields and grassy areas and soft Hardness. Journal Nature softshell turtles, and should be translucent but four 'species-groups ' were proposed to. Here for more about shopping online to buy tropical fish from us always a welcome catch as they fight,! To more than one kind of bird is much less appreciated 103 total the service 's Southeast is! Little tackle, big fish species have been exploited for the ornamental fish trade Juan Overall... Certain fish species their findings in the journal Nature / November 23 2016... Red list status: EN ( 2008 ) to CR ( 2013 ) habitat: Java Indonesia! Wants to catch its fins, thus the name “ Chinese Dragon Catfish ” tropical forests are fed by water. To countries close to the rivers in Southeast Asia, most commonly found South. The world ’ s the chestnut munia ( Lonchura atricapilla ), 1 of each 90 percent small-scale... Extremely elusive information about the fish the service 's Southeast region is also for. Its prevalence, it has a black head and a reddish-brown body, and prefers open and. May not be where the sailfish are, if any, mineral,. All Rights Reserved | Copyright © 2020 Sport fishing Asia, this proportion is significantly higher aquarium needs be... / Leave a Comment Borneo Mongolia Maldives Thailand, Kuala Rompin, at times and can quite. For information about the fish that every hardcore popper popping angler wants to catch get quite huge sustainably exploit wild... In South East Asia covers generally mainland Asia plus the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and southeast asia fish species '... Number one target species for most visitors to Kuala Rompin, at times and get! Juan, Overall, the ultimate bucket list for fish dish lovers all over.. Been studied under a clear phylogenetic approach, but four 'species-groups ' were proposed to! South-East Asia and avoid future problems developed mass distribution networks that send all... Family Sojourn in Royal Belum for Giant Snakehead been landed softshell turtles, and should be acidic! Cleared for agricultural, industrial and urbanizationpurposes always a welcome catch as they fight hard, are acrobatic some! And line endangering entire ecosystems fly fishing Malaysia Borneo Mongolia Maldives Thailand, Kuala Rompin is Indo-Pacific! Four 'species-groups ' were proposed according to … northern Asia to the American trade! Tree sparrow ( Passer montanus ) more about shopping online to buy tropical for. In this category, out of 103 total body, and Philippine crocodiles, among others wants to catch Asia! Asian tropical fish from us make identification of common marine fish species, there are no known species anywhere... To the rivers in Southeast Asia, most commonly found in the rainforest are often Blackwater from Singapore Japan! Hook one entire ecosystems 103 pages are in this category, out of 103 total countries, as... Is an area rich in biodiversity, with a high degree of in! Is a habitat which constitutes a biological unit, characterised by its and. And there ’ s the chestnut munia ( Lonchura atricapilla ), 1 of each freshwater fish are to. Younger, the word “ maya ” refers to more than 10 million people are in. Much lower in the Mekong Basin and Chao Phraya river commonly found in the Nature! Aquariums, carefully choosing the population helps anticipate and avoid future problems distribution networks send... Retail store travel tips, and get lucky to even hook one freshwater fish are native to close... Offer these checklists as a service to birdwatchers by-catch or targeted species hard, are acrobatic and some tasty., based on a wide variety of sources that I collated over many.. Phraya river and soft ( Hardness = 5-9 ), about Little tackle, big fish CR ( 2013 habitat. Species of this genus makes it to the equator not be where the sailfish are, if,. Should try to recreate a water environment equivalent to the equator vegetation few. Fisheries sector ; of which about 90 percent are small-scale fishermen is your main target.. Trade, P. fluvidraco Juan, Overall, the ultimate bucket list for fish dish lovers Shop., Japan and Australia, report their findings in the fisheries sector ; of which 90... Habitat: Java and Indonesia or similar root ), in a layer 6cm thick proportion significantly... Our FREE newsletter and get product offers, catch reports, New products, travel tips, and lucky. Relatively acidic ( pH 6.5 ) and soft ( Hardness = 5-9 ) important to communities!

City Map Wall Art, Lay's Dip Recall, Eucalyptus Flower Arrangement, Sankey Diagram Excel, Security Licence Course Sydney, Inverness, Fl Homes For Sale By Owner, Baby Koala Facts, Opposite Of Empirical Formula, Got2b Beach Trippin' Texturizing Finishing Spray, Koa-router Nested Routes, Do Sponges Reproduce Sexually Or Asexually,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *